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Energy supply security: Turkey

Hydrocarbon Engineering,


  • Oil accounted for 27% of Turkey’s total primary energy supply in 2012.
  • Oil demand was 670 000 bpd in 2012.
  • Domestic oil production is in decline and amounted to 45 000 bpd or % of total 2012 demand.
  • Turkey imported 712 000 bpd of oil and refined products in 2012.
  • Turkey has four operational refineries with a total crude distillation capacity of approximately 610 000 bpd.
  • The 90 day stockholding obligation is met by placing a minimum obligation on industry.
  • Refineries and fuel distribution companies are obliged to hold at least 20 days of product stocks based on the average daily scales of the previous years.
  • Eligible consumers who use more than 20 000 tpy are required to hold 15 days consumption of each type of liquid fuel.
  • At the end of April 2013, Turkey had 63 million bbls of oil stocks.
  • In 2012, natural gas was 32% of total primary energy supply.
  • Gas demand was 45.3 billion m3 in 2012.


  • TUPRAS operates four refineries and two others are under construction by Star Refining and Eastern Mediterranean Refinery.
  • The new plants are expected to add approximately 510 000 bpd of distillation capacity.
  • The total utilisation rate of the four refineries, currently in operation, is approximately 75%.
  • In 2012, total verified product output was 486 000 bpd.
  • Turkey’s total storage capacity is estimated at 79 million bbls.
  • The National Oil Stock Commission (NOSC) is responsible for energy security in the event of supply disruption.
  • At the end of April 2013, Turkey held 63 million bbls of oil stocks, equal to 93 days of 2012 net imports.
  • Turkish legislation does not allow emergency oil reserves to be held abroad.
  • The government does not provide financial support for building compulsory stocks.
  • Demand restraint is considered a secondary emergency response measure that could complement an oil stock release.
  • Short term fuel switching from oil to other fuels is not regarded as an emergency response measure.
  • According to petroleum law, the administration can ask producing companies to increase oil production.


  • Turkish gas demand is mostly supplied by imports through pipelines or LNG.
  • In 2012, Turkey imported 46 billion m3 of gas.
  • In 2012, Russia was Turkey’s largest natural gas supplier filing 58% of imports.
  • Gas market was liberalised in May 2001.
  • Turkey has approximately 3 billion m3 of storage capacity.

Adapted by Claira Lloyd

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