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Energy supply security: Germany

Hydrocarbon Engineering,


  • Germany has very little domestic oil and natural gas production and relies heavily on imports.
  • There is no LNG infrastructure in the company but it has booked capacity in overseas LNG terminals.
  • Oil represented approximately 33% of total primary energy supply in 2012.
  • Natural gas demand has declined more than 11% since 2005.
  • Natural gas represented approximately 22% of total primary energy supply in 2012.
  • The German oil stockholding agency (EBV) is solely responsible for meeting the country’s 90 day stockholding obligation.
  • There is no minimum stockholding obligation on industry.
  • Industry held commercial stocks are held in addition to EBV stocks.
  • There are no compulsory natural gas storage requirements in Germany and no state owned storage facilities.


  • German crude oil production averaged 56 000 bpd in 2012.
  • Oil demand was 2.4 million bpd in 2012.
  • A 14% drop in oil consumption is predicted between 2010 and 2025.
  • Total oil imports were 2.6 million bpd in 2012.
  • Germany has a highly deregulated and competitive oil market.
  • The German government does not have an ownership stake in any of the companies operating in the oil sector.
  • Germany has one of the largest refining capacities in Europe and is among the largest oil refiners in the world.
  • At the end of 2013, Germany had 13 refineries with a total crude oil atmospheric distillation capacity of 2.1 million bpd.
  • There is an oil tank storage capacity of approximately 414 million bbls.
  • The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy has the lead responsibility within the federal government for contingency planning and emergency measures.
  • The EBV holds the majority of Germany’s stocks.
  • Germany has a convention of regionalisation in conjunction with the 90 day stockholding obligation.
  • The operations of the EBV are fully funded by contributions from its members.
  • There are both light and heavy handed demand restraint measures in place that can be deployed in an emergency.
  • Fuel switching has limited application.


  • In the coming years natural gas production is expected to decline by an average of 5%.
  • Natural gas demand has declined by 11% since 2005.
  • Approximately 86% of Germany’s natural gas demand is met through imports.
  • Germany has 50 gas storage facilities with a total capacity of 22.7 billion m3.
  • There are no compulsory natural gas storage requirements and no state owned storage facilities.
  • All natural gas stocks are held by private companies for commercial reasons.
  • In an emergency, the federal government has the responsibility for triggering Germany’s natural gas emergency response measures.
  • Fuel switching capacities are not included in the German security of supply policy measures.

Adapted by Claira Lloyd

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