Carbon Capture and Storage, a necessary tool to fight climate change
This paper introduces the role of CCUS as a solution for hard-to-abate emissions. Dominant carbon capture technologies are introduced along with new solutions, as well as some hints for large-scale CCS rollout.
Carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) covers all technologies dedicated to removing CO2 from flue gas, industrial gases, natural gas and the atmosphere, recycling this CO2 for utilisation (U) in chemical applications, for instance, and/or storing (S) it in geological cavities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a subset of CCUS, as its name suggests. Both are part of the equation for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, improving energy efficiency, increasing renewables use and promoting a fuel switch.
CCS is expected to show a significant contribution to achieving net-zero emissions around the mid-century mark by removing emissions from industries that are hard to decarbonise. Since CCS has a vital role to play in all the anticipated scenarios, the development of CCS projects is growing significantly worldwide, but not quickly enough. Moreover, accelerated CCS is one of the COP26 Mission Innovation targets.
Among the numerous carbon capture technologies, the dominant two are pre- and post-combustion. New, more cost-effective CO2 capture technologies are, however, required. IFP Energies nouvelles (IFPEN) and Axens are addressing this situation through the development of the DMX™ process technology, for instance.
After the capture stage, transport to storage and the storage solution itself are key to accelerating decarbonisation.
This white paper concludes with some hints on the way forward for large-scale CCS rollout.